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    手套比口罩更重要!美國衛生專家撰文:如何預防“武漢”冠狀病毒感染

    返回列表 來源: 發布日期: 2020.01.29

    勞里·加勒特(Laurie Garrett)是美國著名女記者,是獲得皮博迪獎(The Peabody Award)、喬治 · 伯克獎(George Polk Award)和普利策獎(Pulitzer Award)三大著名新聞獎的第一人。現為美國對外關系委員會全球衛生高級研究員。


    勞里·加勒特(Laurie Garrett)


    她曾對埃博拉、SARS 等大型傳染病和公共健康危機都做過實地考察與深度研究,出版了《失信: 全球公共衛生事業之癱瘓》《流行天下! 傳染病的世界》《逼近的瘟疫》等多部關于傳染病與公共衛生的著作。


    對于這一次的2019-nCoV病毒帶來的恐慌,她撰文講述了自己面對傳染病的經驗與知識,以及10個在疫情期間保護自己的預防措施,來看看吧——


    how to stay safe


    01.

    When you leave your home, wear gloves—winter mittens or outdoor gloves—and keep them on in subways, buses, and public spaces.

    出門離家時,戴上手套 ——冬天的手套或是戶外手套都可以——任何公共場合包括地鐵,公交都不要脫下來。



    02.

    If you are in a social situation where you should remove your gloves, perhaps to shake hands or dine, do not touch your face or eyes, no matter how much something itches. Keep your hands away from contact with your face. And before you put your gloves back on, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water, scrubbing the fingers. Put your gloves on.

    在某些需要脫下手套的社交場合,比如握手和吃飯時,不要用手接觸你的臉或眼睛, 不管有多癢都不要讓你的手接觸你的臉。在戴回手套前,用溫水和肥皂仔細洗手,好好搓洗手指,再戴上手套。



    03.

    Change gloves daily, washing them thoroughly, and avoid wearing damp gloves.

    每天更換手套,仔細清洗。 不要戴潮濕的手套。


    04.

    Masks are useless when worn outdoors and may not be very helpful even indoors. Most masks deteriorate after one or two wearings. Using the same mask day after day is worse than useless—it’s disgusting, as the contents of your mouth and nose eventually coat the inside of the mask with a smelly veneer that is attractive to bacteria. I rarely wear a face mask in an epidemic, and I have been in more than 30 outbreaks. 

    口罩使用一次很有必要。重復使用,則口罩在戶外佩戴時毫無用處,即使在室內用處也不大。大多口罩在被使用一兩次后就被污染了,重復同一口罩比不戴口罩更糟糕。 因為從你嘴和鼻子的呼出的物質最終會在口罩內部形成一層十分滋養細菌的,發臭的膜。在傳染病流行期間我很少重復戴口罩,我曾經經歷過這種狀況超過30次。


    Instead, I stay away from crowds, and I keep my distance from individual people—a half meter, about 1.5 feet, is a good standard. If someone is coughing or sneezing, I ask them to put on a mask—to protect me from their potentially contaminated fluids. If they decline, I step a meter (about 3 feet) away from them, or I leave. Don’t shake hands or hug people—politely beg off, saying it’s better for both of you not to come in close contact during an epidemic.

    相反,我會遠離人群,并且與個人保持距離 ——差不多半米左右是比較好的標準。要是有人咳嗽或是打噴嚏,我會請他們戴上口罩, 來保護我免受潛在的有污染的液體傷害。如果他們拒絕,我會走到一米的距離之外,或者干脆離開。不要與人握手或擁抱 ,告訴對方在傳染病流行期間不要靠太近,這對彼此都好。



    戴口罩預防冠狀病毒




    05.

    Inside your household, remove all of the towels from your bathrooms and kitchen immediately, and replace them with clean towels that have the names of each family member on them. Instruct everybody in your home to only use their own towels and never touch another family member’s. Wash all towels twice a week. Damp towels provide terrific homes for viruses, like common colds, flus, and, yes, coronaviruses.

    在家里要馬上給浴室和廚房都換上干凈的毛巾 ,讓家里每個人都用自己的專屬毛巾,不去觸碰別人的。每周洗兩次毛巾。濕毛巾會為病毒滋生提供溫床,例如普通感冒,流感,以及冠狀病毒。



    06. 

    Be careful with doorknobs. If it’s possible to open and close doors using your elbows or shoulders, do so. Wear gloves to turn a doorknob—or wash your hands after touching it. If anybody in your home takes sick, wash your doorknobs regularly. Similarly, be cautious with stairway banisters, desktops, cell phones, toys, laptops—any objects that are hand-held. 

    小心門把手,最好用肘部或肩膀去開關門。戴手套去擰門把手,或者在觸摸了門把手后去洗手。 如果家里有病人,定期清潔門把手。同樣,對待樓梯扶手,桌面,手機,玩具,筆記本電腦等任何手持物體都要小心謹慎。


    As long as you handle o nly your own personal objects, you will be ok—but if you need to pick up someone else’s cell phone or cooking tools or use someone else’s computer keyboard, be mindful of not touching your face and wash your hands immediately after touching the object.

    只要你只接觸自己的私人物品,就沒什么問題。但是,如果你需要使用別人的手機,廚具或電腦鍵盤,請注意不要觸摸臉部,并在觸摸物體后立即去洗手。



    07.

    If you share meals, do not use your personal chopsticks and utensils to remove food from a serving bowl or plate and, of course, tell your children to never drink out of anybody else’s cups or from a container of shared fluid. Place serving spoons in each dish and instruct everybody at the table to scoop what they want from the serving dishes onto their personal plates or bowls, return the serving spoon to the main dish, and then use their personal chopsticks only to pick food from their personal plate or bowl into their mouth. 

    吃飯時,不要用你自己的筷子和餐具去公碗和盤子里夾菜。 也要告訴你的孩子不要喝別人杯子或者容器里的水。在席上讓每個人使用公勺將盤子里的菜夾到自己的盤子或者碗里,然后將公勺放回公盤,然后用自己的筷子將自己盤子或者碗里的食物送進嘴里。


    Wash all food and kitchenware thoroughly between me als and avoid restaurants that have poor hygiene practices.

    飯前仔細清洗食物,飯后仔細清洗餐具,不要去衛生條件不好的餐館用餐。



    武漢華南海鮮批發市場


    08.

    Absolutely do not buy, slaughter, or consume any live animal or fish until it is known what species was the source of the virus.

    在病毒傳播源被發現之前,絕對不要購買,屠宰,或是食用任何生鮮動物和魚類。




    09.

    When the weather allows, open your windows at home or work, letting your space air out. The virus cannot linger in a well-ventilated space. But of course, if it is cold or the weather is inclement, keep warm and close those windows.

    天氣條件允許的情況下,打開家里或辦公室的窗戶,讓室內空氣流通, 病毒無法在通風條件良好的空間里停留。當然,如果天氣嚴寒,就關窗保暖。



    10.

    Finally, if you are caring for a friend or family member who is running a fever, always wear a tight-fitting mask when you are near them, and place one on the ailing person (unless they are nauseated). 

    最后,如果你在照顧得病的朋友或家人,在靠近他們時,一定要時刻佩戴與面部緊貼的口罩,并給他們也戴上(除非他們感到惡心)。


    When you replace an old, dirty mask from the face of your friend or loved one be very, very careful—assume, for the sake of your protection, that it is covered in viruses, and handle it while wearing latex gloves, place it inside of a disposable container, seal it, and then put it in the trash. While wearing those latex gloves, gently wash the patient’s face with warm soap and water, using a disposable paper towel or cotton swab, and seal it after use in a container or plastic bag before placing it in your household trash. 

    當你幫忙從朋友或親人的臉上摘除使用過的臟口罩時,請務必要非常小心 ——為了保護自己,你必須假設該口罩已被病毒覆蓋,戴上乳膠手套去進行處理,將其放進可丟棄的包裝袋內,密封好,然后再丟進垃圾桶。戴上乳膠手套為患者用紙巾和棉球輕輕地用肥皂和溫水清洗患者的面部,并在使用后將其密封好裝入包裝袋或塑料袋中,然后再丟進家里的垃圾箱。


    Wear long-sleeved shirts and clothing that covers your body when you are caring for your ailing friend or relative. Clean everything your patient wears or touches very thoroughly in hot soapy water, including sheets, towels, and utensils.

    在照顧生病的朋友或家人時, 要穿上能包裹全身的長袖衣物。 用熱肥皂水徹底清洗患者所穿過的衣物和接觸的所有物品,包括床單,毛巾和器皿。


    If you have space, isolate the sick person in your household in a room, or a corner of a room, where they are comfortable, but separated from the rest of the household. If the weather is tolerable, open a window that is on the opposite side of the room, so that air gently blows past the patient’s face and then outdoors. Of course, don’t do this if it is very cold, as your friend or loved one will be made sicker if uncomfortably cold.

    如果你家里有足夠的空間, 為病人隔離出一個房間或房間的一角, 讓他們感到舒適的同時又與家庭中的其他人分開。如果天氣適宜,打開房間另一側的窗戶,這樣空氣能輕輕吹過患者的面部后,流動吹到室外。當然,如果天氣很冷就不要這樣做,因為你的朋友和家人可能會因寒冷而病情加重。


    The Chinese government will take very drastic actions over the next few weeks, and this will be a time of hardship for the Chinese people.  But with these simple precautions, if taken by everybody in your household, building, office, and school, you will dramatically reduce the spread of the virus and bring the outbreak to its knees. Be safe. Do not panic. 

    中國政府將在接下來的幾周內采取更嚴厲的措施,這對中國人民來說將是一個艱難的時期。 但是,有了這些簡單的預防措施,只要大家在家里 ,建筑物里 ,辦公室和學校里都采取這些簡單的預防措施。 就能大大減少該病毒的傳播風險, 并遏制疫情爆發 。


    Take commonsense precautions. As frightening as this time is, you will get through it.

    注意安全。不要驚慌。采取一些常識性的預防措施。 眼下的狀況雖然可怕,但你一定會渡過難關。


    注:該文來源> 科獎中心>  英語世界  # 一字未變


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